How To Terminate Pregnancy In Dogs

, DVM, MS, DACVIM, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California, Davis

Unwanted and unauthorized cat-dog breeding is a widespread worry. Ovariohysterectomy can end a pregnancy or fully prevent it. It is advisable to confirm an unwanted pregnancy before moving through with termination, unless neutering is agreed upon, as 60% of misbred female dogs do not conceive. Post-couple douches had no effect on avoiding unintended pregnancy. Although injectable estrogens, when used properly, can prevent pregnancy, their usage is not recommended due to the high risk of major side effects, such as pyometra and potentially deadly bone marrow suppression. Given during diestrus, oral estrogens considerably increase the chance of pyometra, are ineffective at ending pregnancies, and are therefore not recommended.

By administering prostaglandin F2alpha (a natural hormone) at 0.1 mg/kg, SC, three times a day for 48 hours, and then 0.2 mg/kg, SC, three times a day to take effect, both dogs and cats can safely and effectively end their pregnancies (until all fetuses are evacuated as confirmed by ultrasonography). Treatment periods might last up to 14 days. The duration of treatment in dogs can be shortened (often by 48 hours) by giving prostaglandin E (misoprostol) intravaginally at a dose of 13 mcg/kg/day. At this dosage, prostaglandins’ negative effects (panting, trembling, nausea, and diarrhea) are modest and momentary. Prostaglandins have a limited therapeutic window, thus doses must be carefully calculated. Currently, synthetic prostaglandins (cloprostenol 13 mcg/kg every 1224 hours to effect) are recommended because they more precisely target the myometrium and have fewer systemic side effects.

Dexamethasone, at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg, PO, bid to effect, can also effectively end pregnancy in female dogs. The detrimental effects of administering corticosteroids should be made known to the owner (eg, panting, polyuria, polydipsia).

It has been reported that combination drug protocols (cabergoline 5 mcg/kg, PO, divided every 24 hours for as long as 10 days, and cloprostenol 1 mcg/kg given SC twice at 28 and 32 days after the LH surge) reliably terminate pregnancies with the fewest side effects, shortest treatment times, and highest success rates; their cost and requirement for compounding are drawbacks.

Abortifacients like aglepristone are safe and effective, but access to them is still a problem.

Is it possible to end a dog’s pregnancy without spaying it?

It is possible to end the pregnancy without sterilizing the female animal if future breeding of the animal is crucial. This involves using drugs to halt the pregnancy in the second “trimester,” which is around 30–40 days into the pregnancy. The surgery usually requires the female to stay in the hospital for 5-7 days after which she is discharged to her owner and is no longer pregnant. Knowing the breeding date is essential since some drugs only function at particular stages of pregnancy. Hospitalization is frequently required because some medications must be administered through injection and because there will be disagreeable vaginal discharge that is unwelcome at home.

Two crucial hormones are secreted by the pituitary gland of pregnant women: prolactin and luteinizing hormone ” (affectionately termed “LH). Both of these hormones support and maintain a pregnancy-related ovarian structure known as a “Progesterone, the hormone that directly maintains the pregnancy, is secreted by the corpus luteum.

Typically, prolactin secretion disruption medication (such as cabergoline or bromocriptine) is combined with a prostaglandin (a hormone to induce uterine contractions and directly destroy the corpus luteum). Compared to bromocriptine, cabergoline is associated with less cramps and vomiting, but the price is much greater. The United States has only recently become able to buy cabergoline.

Pregnancy termination can also be achieved with the administration of dexamethasone, a steroid hormone that is frequently prescribed for a variety of medical conditions. Since high doses are used, adverse effects are frequent (excessive thirst, excessive urination sometimes with incontinence, panting). If finished by day 40 of pregnancy, a normal procedure involves 9–12 days of medicine, doesn’t call for hospitalization, and only requires minor vaginal discharge. While some doctors believe combinations of the other medications suggested are more reliable, others favor this strategy. Dogs but not cats appear to be candidates for the dexamethasone method.

Your veterinarian is likely to have a specific protocol that they have followed in the past and believe is safe and comfortable for the animal.

To ensure the abortion was successful, it is a good idea to perform some sort of pregnancy test after the procedure. Another relaxin test, abdominal radiography, blood progesterone levels, ultrasound, or any combination of these tests may be used in this type of testing.

In the past, the female dog that had been mismated may be taken to the vet for an estrogen injection within a few days of the miscarriage. Since the use of large dosages of estrogen predisposed the female to a potentially fatal uterine infection known as “pyometra” (up to 25% occurrence in one study), this treatment is generally no longer advised. Additionally, the estrus (and all the unpleasant vaginal discharge and attraction of men) may last longer, which increases the risk of dangerous bone marrow suppression. It has been determined that this treatment is too harmful and shouldn’t be sought.

Is it possible to abort a dog?

Can a Dog Get Pregnant? Female dogs who are pregnant may have an abortion utilizing a veterinarian’s surgical or medicinal methods to end their pregnancy. The majority of nations and states in North America have legalized it.

How much does it cost to have a dog’s pregnancy ended?

The price of a dog abortion ranges from $45 to $175 when an accidental mating occurs within the first 15 days of the female’s heat cycle. Methods including drugs cost between $100 and $700.

The cost of an abortion when ending a late pregnancy surgically might reach $2,000 or even $3,000. This also covers the costs associated with hospitalization after the procedure.

According to AnimalSo, the size of the dog, the stage of the pregnancy, and your location all determine how much the abortion will cost.

Is there a medication to prevent dog pregnancies?

Around six months of age is when female dogs often reach puberty, or sexual maturity. Some females can experience their first “heat” cycle as early as four months of age, with the smaller breeds having a tendency to enter estrus, or “heat,” earlier. However, huge and giant breed dogs might take up to two years before they first experience menstruation.

How often do female dogs come into heat?

This happens twice a year on average, though it differs from dog to dog. The intervals between cycles may vary significantly when cycling first starts. That is typical. Some females need between 18 and 2 years to establish a regular cycle.

The intervals between cycles may vary significantly when cycling first starts.

More frequently than the larger breeds, little breeds tend to cycle. For some ladies, having three or even four heat cycles a year can be typical. Large breeds might only go through one cycle every 12 to 18 months. An estrus cycle every 12 months is typical in the majority of gigantic breeds, including Great Danes, Irish Wolfhounds, and St. Bernards.

How long does a heat cycle or estrus last?

For the majority of canines, heat cycles last two to three weeks on average. The vulvar enlargement or vaginal discharge signals the start of the heat cycle. When all discharge stops and the vulva reaches its regular size, the process is complete.

How can I prevent my female dog from coming into heat and having puppies?

There are two ways to stop a female dog from going into heat:

1. Ovariohysterectomy (spay) surgery is advised. The complete female reproductive system, including the uterus and both ovaries, are surgically removed during an ovariohysterectomy, sometimes known as a spay procedure. It is an operation that cannot be undone. Although this is a major abdominal operation that requires general anesthesia, when it is carried out by a veterinarian, there is very little danger involved.

Ovariectomy procedures, in which just the ovaries are removed and the uterus is left behind, are now being offered and advised by some veterinarians. Consult your dog’s veterinarian to get their recommendations.

2. Hormone-based medical management is often not advised due to hazards.

When a woman has a hysterectomy, the ovaries are not usually removed. Why is it necessary to remove the ovaries in my dog?

Female dogs have a completely different reproductive cycle than do female humans. Only when female dogs are in “season,” or heat, which occurs typically twice a year, can they conceive. An ovariohysterectomy is performed in order to prevent the estrus cycle. As a result, the dog’s risk of developing breast cancer is decreased, and the risk of ovarian and uterine cancer is also eliminated. Additionally, unwanted litters are avoided, and “heat”-related behavioral changes are not adopted.

Are there any other advantages to spaying?

fictitious pregnancy Your female dog will avoid the dangers of a fake pregnancy if she is spayed. False pregnancies look and behave like real pregnancies, which can lead to aberrant behaviors and an elevated risk of mastitis and pyometra (uterine infection) (mammary infection).

Pyometra Pyometra is the medical term for uterine infection. Pyometra is a dangerous ailment that can be fatal in females who have not been spayed, and the risk of developing it rises with age. The possibility of this disorder is eliminated by spaying (ovariohysterectomy).

A female dog’s risk of developing breast cancer is decreased to less than 0.5% by spaying her.

Mammary cancer (mammary neoplasia) Most experts agree that spaying a female dog before her first heat cycle lowers her risk of breast cancer to less than 0.5%. A female who has one heat cycle has an 8% probability of acquiring mammary cancer, while a canine that experiences two heat cycles has a 26% chance. The sooner a female is spayed, the lower her risk of acquiring breast cancer, the most common cancer in dogs.

control of estrus by medicine In either the United States or Canada, there are no drugs that have been approved to manage the heat cycle in dogs. Some drugs are used to control estrus and prevent pregnancy among the nations of the European Union. Some of these medications frequently have severe, sometimes fatal side effects.

Do dogs have morning after pills?

Each choice comes with a lengthy set of guidelines, health dangers, and safety measures.

Tablets of diethylstilbestrol (DES)

The term “morning after pills for dogs” is commonly used to refer to these medications. They only work if the dog was taken to the veterinarian’s office right away following the mating. This is because they need to be given for five days following mating. Unfortunately, not all nations offer DES tablets, and they have certain adverse effects (most commonly blood issues). In the past, DES was available in an injectable form. The injectable form isn’t offered now though.

The medication estradiol cypionate (ECP), also referred to as the “missmate injection,” is frequently taken with DES tablets. When it has been more than five days since mating, the combination is employed. ECP is effective when used alone if it is given within 72 hours of the mating. Dogs cannot use ECP, according to the FDA. However, it is permissible for licensed veterinarians to legitimately prescribe and use it as a prescription extra-label medicine. ECP is linked to several severe adverse reactions, including pyometra and bone marrow suppression.

Mifepristone (also known as RU486 or Mifeprex) is an abortion drug designed for use in people. Sadly, it is not labeled for dogs because to its potential side effects and lack of guarantee in its favorable outcome. Furthermore, it is pricey and hardly available, if at all.

Dexamethasone tablets, which are glucocorticoids, are strong enough to induce abortion even in the later stages of pregnancy. On the other hand, this choice is not always effective. Additionally, using glucocorticoids has been linked to some adverse effects include excessive thirst and frequent urination. Fortunately, once the treatment is through, the side effects go away.

The “yellow body,” or prostaglandin F2, which is crucial for supporting the pregnancy, is destroyed by prostaglandin F2. Many veterinarians favor prostaglandins over estrogens because they are safer and have less adverse effects, even if the use of prostaglandins to end pregnancies is still in the experimental stage.

Aglepristone is a progesterone antagonist that binds to the progesterone receptors on the uterus and inhibits the effects of progesterone. For the implantation of embryos and continuation of pregnancy, progesterone is crucial. This treatment option’s main advantage is that it remains effective for up to 45 days after mating. Two injections are given as part of the therapy, separated by 24 hours. Unfortunately, this choice is very pricey.

Canine surgical abortion achieved by spaying

If there hasn’t been more than two weeks since the mating, this is feasible. The uterus is still extremely small at this point, and the technique is essentially similar to prophylactic spaying.

Can I check my dog for pregnancy with a human test?

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, or HCG, is a particular hormone that is produced by humans during pregnancy. Observe the term, “human. Pregnancy tests performed at home particularly check for this hormone in human urine. Humans are able to get outcomes quickly and precisely in this way.

Dogs cannot be screened for pregnancy via urine testing since they do not produce this hormone. In actuality, dogs often don’t manufacture a particular “pregnancy hormone in a human-like manner. While this is true, many dog owners are confused by the fact that dogs produce more progesterone.

A dog’s abortion at the vet costs how much?

The vet’s office or an animal hospital is the safest location for your surgery.

A veterinarian is skilled in scenario analysis and appropriate management. He’ll also be able to let you know about any hazards associated with the treatment.

The sooner in the dog’s pregnancy that the treatment is performed, the more cheap it usually is.

Depending on where you reside, the cost of an abortion for a dog that had an unintentional mating within the first 15 days of her heat cycle might range from $45 to $175.

Drug-induced techniques cost between $100 and $700. Your dog’s size and the stage of her pregnancy will both have an impact on the price of these procedures.

If the pregnancy is too far along, the cost increases and ranges from $2,000 to $3,000. In certain clinics, these costs also cover hospitalization and any post-procedure medicines.

What are your dog’s first pregnancy symptoms?

Because dogs are unable to purchase a pregnancy test kit from the drugstore, we must rely on other techniques to establish whether a dog is pregnant. Diagnostic testing is the most reliable method of determining whether a dog is pregnant.

  • Palpation Your veterinarian can perform an abdominal palpation starting at about the 28–30-day mark if you are aware of the date your dog was bred. The puppies feel like tiny grapes or golf balls at this point in the pregnancy, depending on the size of the dog. These “balls” are the fetus’s protective fluid-filled sacks. Without a veterinarian’s help, abdominal palpation should not be performed since it could harm the pups. The timing of this test is crucial since the sacks lose their distinctive structure after a month.
  • Ultrasound As an alternative, between 25 and 35 days of gestation, your veterinarian can perform an ultrasound. You may usually determine the number of puppies the bitch is carrying by using an ultrasound to find fetal heartbeats. The heartbeats of the puppies are 2- to 3-times faster than those of the mother.
  • hormone analysis Your dog’s hormone levels can be measured with a blood test at around 25 to 30 days of pregnancy to determine whether the dog is releasing the hormone relaxin. Because relaxin is only made during pregnancy, the test’s accuracy is fair.
  • X-ray One of the best ways to tell if a bitch is pregnant is via X-rays. The puppies’ skeletal systems don’t appear on an x-ray until they are 55 days old or older, therefore it is advisable to conduct this at that point. You can accurately count the number of puppies at this stage using an x-ray, which will enable you to predict when your dog will be completed giving birth.

Signs of Dog Pregnancy

Although it is the most accurate method, diagnostic testing is not the only one available to establish whether a dog is pregnant. There are several indicators of dog pregnancy that you should be aware of:

  • elevated appetite
  • gaining weight
  • enlargement of the nipples
  • bloated abdomen
  • more easily tire
  • Nesting habits
  • Added affection
  • Irritability

Additionally, due to hormonal fluctuations in the first several weeks, some dogs may vomit and have a drop in appetite for a few days.” According to Dr. Klein, some dogs who display these sighs may possibly be having a fake pregnancy. ” There are additional disorders that might alter appetite, result in weight gain, and enlarge the abdomen. Take your dog to the vet for a checkup to rule out anything more serious.