Is Allulose Toxic To Dogs

Healthy canines were used to assess the biological effects and safety of a long-term dosage of D-allulose. The dogs received D-allulose (0.2 g/kg) or a placebo every day for 12 weeks. levels of plasma total cholesterol in the

At and following week 2, D-allulose group levels were substantially lower than those in the control group (P 0.05). Clinical symptoms or alterations in hematological and biochemical levels were not brought on by the administration of D-allulose.

everything but lipids. Administration of D-allulose had no effect on body weight either. One day following the end of the D-allulose dose, plasma glucose and insulin values in the glucose tolerance test were

not different between groups, indicating that D-allulose has no cumulative effects on healthy dogs’ glucose metabolism. In conclusion, D-allulose medication over an extended period of time had no negative consequences on dogs.

D-allulose, commonly known as D-psicose, is a monosaccharide that occurs in nature very infrequently [7]. Recently, it has been proposed that D-allulose possesses antiobesity and antihyperglycemic effects.

results [7]. In healthy rats [13], genetically obese rats [8, 10], humans eating maltodextrin [11], and humans with borderline diabetes [5], D-allulose has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose concentrations. the diabetes medication

D-effects allulose’s may result from the inhibition of digestive enzymes such -glucosidase [7], the suppression of glucose absorption in the intestine [6], and the stimulation of hepatic glucokinase, which increases the consumption of glucose for glycogen formation [10]. D-allulose has been proven to exert antihyperglycemic properties in addition to

According to studies, the antiobesity effects of D-allulose are brought about by an increase in energy expenditure [9], a reduction in caloric intake [20], and an increase in fatty acids.

Oxidation of acid [17]. Additionally, some studies have demonstrated that D-allulose treatment improves rats’ dyslipidemia [1, 7], albeit the mechanism underlying the effect’s lowering of blood lipids is still unknown [7].

Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes have recently emerged as serious clinical issues in companion dogs [3, 16, 22]. The therapy of these pathologic diseases in dogs may be aided by the effects of D-allulose that have been shown in people and rodents. In fact, studies have shown that D-allulose can reduce the rise in blood sugar after oral or

D-allulose has been identified as an ordinary drug with an oral LD50 of 16 g/kg in rats [15], and long-term safety in humans [5] and rats [14, 23] has already been shown. It has been demonstrated that oral administration of a large dose of D-allulose (1 and 4 g/kg) only results in self-limiting

symptoms of the digestive tract and a brief increase in plasma alkaline phosphatase activity [18]. These findings suggested that acute toxicity from a single dosage of D-allulose treatment is not present.

in canine. D-biological allulose’s effects or repeated, long-term safety for this species are yet unclear. The biological effects and safety of a 12-week treatment of D-allulose were assessed in the current investigation.

The Gifu University’s institutional Animal Experiment Committee gave its approval to this project. Ten healthy beagle dogs were placed into two groups of five each, one for the D-allulose group and one for the control group. The control and D-allulose

Age, body weight, and body condition score (9-point scale) were 5.22.2 and 6.02.2 years, 14.22.5 and 13.71.6 kg, and 5.40.9 and 5.20.4, respectively. Groups both contain one castrated male and four spayed females.

Age, body weight, and body condition score did not differ across groups (Welch’s t-test). Based on a physical examination, a veterinary clinician (NN) determined that all the dogs were healthy.

The dogs were fed commercial dry food (Royal Canin Medium Adult, Royal Canin Japon, Tokyo, Japan) once per day for the duration of the 12-week experiment. The equation for maintenance was used to determine the amount to feed.

1.295 body weight (kg) and 0.75 kcal for adult canines. Dogs had unrestricted access to water during the experiment. The control group got an equal amount of D-allulose solution (0.2 g/kg) as did the D-allulose group.

a daily serving of water with your meal. There was no change in calorie consumption between the two groups since D-allulose has no calories [7]. The Kagawa Company provided the D-allulose

Japan’s University Rare Sugar Research Center A prior study [19] was used to establish the dosage rate of D-allulose. consumption of food, the kind of feces, activity, and clinical symptoms,

If any, daily records were kept. We measured body weight at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. At the 0 and 12 week marks, EDTA blood samples were taken for complete blood counts. Biochemical tests (plasma aspartate and alanine aminotransferase)

Total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, total cholesterol, and total triglyceride concentrations) were measured.

undertaken with plasma that has been heparinized at 0, 2, 4, and 12 weeks. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was conducted before the experiment and one day after the D-allulose or placebo treatment ended. A 50% solution of glucose

(0.5 g/kg) (Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan) was administered intravenously, and samples of heparinized plasma were taken at intervals of 0, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes later for the determination of glucose and insulin.

An automated analyzer obtained a complete blood count (Celltac , Nihon Kohden, Tokyo, Japan). An automated biochemical analyzer (Labospect 003; Hitachi High-Technologies, Tokyo, Japan) was used to measure the biochemical parameters.

Japan). The LBIS dog insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Shibayagi, Gunma, Japan) was used to measure the plasma insulin concentration [19].

The trapezoid approach was used to compute the area under the curves (AUC) for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Using Welch’s t-test, differences between the groups were examined. differences from week’s values

A repeated measures one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction was used to assess. P values of 0.05 or higher were regarded as significant. EZR (Saitama Medical Center, Jichi) was used for statistical analysis.

graphical user interface for R (Medical University) [12] (The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, version 3.0.2).

The dogs were active during the experiment, ingested all the food offered, passed typical excrement, and displayed no clinical symptoms. Both groups’ body weights were steady, with no differences between them (body

weight at week 12 was 14.51.2 kg for the D-allulose group and 13.60.8 kg for the control group, respectively. Both groups’ hematological parameters remained the same over the course of the trial (Supplementary data). values of platelet count in the

At weeks 0 and 12, the D-allulose group’s levels were lower than those in the control group (P 0.05). Plasma total cholesterol levels in the D-allulose group are lower at and after week 2 than in the control group.

(P 0.05) group (Table 1). Plasma triglyceride concentrations rose in the control group over the duration of the experiment, while they stayed low in the D-allulose group (Table 1).

At and following week 2, there was a significant difference in the plasma triglyceride concentrations between the groups (P 0.05). Other biochemical measures did not significantly differ between the groups. There

neither before nor after the study period, there were any alterations in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations used in the intravenous glucose tolerance test (Fig. 1). Before or after the study period, AUC for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations did not substantially differ between groups (Fig. 1).

Allulose: Can it harm dogs?

These findings suggested that dogs do not exhibit severe toxicity to a single oral dosage of D-allulose. Rare sugars are monosaccharides and their derivatives, which are uncommon in nature, according to the International Society of Rare Sugars.

Which sweetener is hazardous to canines?

Hoover, your six-month-old puppy, will consume anything that isn’t secured. You are aware that chocolate can be harmful to your dog, like many other dog owners. But you might not be aware that the repercussions could be fatal if Hoover gets his nose in your handbag and swallows a pack of sugarless chewing gum.

Xylitol, a type of sweetener referred to as sugar alcohol, is sometimes found in sugarless gum. Many goods and foods intended for human use include xylitol, but your pet may suffer terrible consequences from it.

Call your veterinarian, an urgent care facility, or an animal poison control center right away if you suspect your dog may have consumed a product containing xylitol.

Additionally, you may have heard or read news reports about dogs who have passed away or had severe illnesses after consuming items containing xylitol, also referred to as birch sugar or wood sugar.

Is xylitol superior to allulose?

The best natural sweeteners are listed here, along with a brief summary of their advantages and flavor profiles. One of the following options can help you if you’re having difficulties controlling your sugar tooth.


One of the newest low-calorie sweeteners on the market is allulose. It’s becoming more and more popular because it has the same flavor and feel as sugar and no aftertaste.

Because it only occurs naturally in a small quantity in a select few foods, including figs, wheat, and raisins, allulose is regarded as a “rare sugar.” It also goes by the name D-psicose and shares fructose’s chemical composition but differs significantly in structure. Because our bodies can’t use allulose for energy like they can erythritol, it retains a comparable taste to sugar without having the same metabolic consequence.

Manufacturers use fructose from plants, such as maize and other plants, and subject it to an enzyme, which changes the fructose structure into D-psicose.

Calories and Carbs in Allulose

About 0.2–0.4 calories per gram of allulose, or one-tenth as many calories as table sugar, are present. It cannot be digested, hence there are no net carbohydrates. Because it is predominantly absorbed into the blood stream and does not increase blood sugar or insulin levels, allulose is comparable to erythritol in this regard. According to studies, it may be able to lessen the glycemic response to maltodextrin and the subsequent rise in blood sugar levels.

Allulose Digestibility

Allulose is preferable to sugar alcohols like xylitol and maltitol because it shouldn’t cause any digestive pain in short doses. However, if ingested in high amounts, it might result in gas and bloating. In addition, little study has been done on the long-term effects of allulose and how it might influence the microbiome because it is a relatively new natural sweetener.

Allulose Taste

Because it tastes very similar to sugar and has no weird aftertaste, allulose is a popular natural sweetener. It also has a sweetness level that is almost 70% higher than table sugar, making it a simple sugar substitute that you may use to cut back on your sugar intake by exchanging spoon for spoon.

Monk Fruit

This sweetener goes by many names. It is also known as Buddha fruit or lo han guo and grows on the vines of the Southeast Asian-native Siraitia grosvenorii plant. It has been used for centuries as a traditional medicinal and low-calorie sweetener, with the first instance of use being with monks who lived in China in the thirteenth century.

The pulp and juice inside of this tiny brown gourd provide the sweetness. Juice is gathered and dried to create a concentrated powder that, like Stevia, has a sweetness level that is 200–300 times more than that of sugar.

Calories and Carbs in Monk Fruit

Fructose and glucose are naturally present in monk fruit, however during processing, the sugars are eliminated, leaving behind an extract that contains mogroside. Mogroside is the substance that gives monk fruit its calorie-free sweetness.

Monk fruit does not raise blood sugar levels because it has no sugars and no calories. Mogroside extract actually lowered blood sugar levels and raised HDL, or “good cholesterol,” in a research on diabetic mice. Although this hasn’t been tested in people, the effects of mogroside’s insulin-stimulating properties may be to blame for the drop in blood sugar levels.

Monk fruit is frequently used with sweeteners, just like stevia. So, if you’re using it to replace sugar, read the label to find out what they’re mixing it with. Blood sugar levels will rise if it contains dextrose or maltodextrin. Additionally, it’s frequently mixed with erythritol, which has no impact on blood sugar.

Monk Fruit Digestibility

Monk fruit usually doesn’t give folks a lot of stomach problems on its own. But as was previously mentioned, you should read the label to determine what other components might be added. The combination of a sugar alcohol, such as xylitol or maltitol, might result in digestive problems such gas, bloating, and diarrhea.

Monk Fruit Taste

Monk fruit is typically seen as having a fruity flavor and as being less bitter than other natural sweeteners like Stevia. However, some people do detect a small aftertaste, like with the majority of sugar-free sweeteners. But overall, it has a softer flavor and is frequently chosen over other, more widely used sugar replacements.

Remember that monk fruit is very sweet, much like stevia. Start off mildly and then gradually increase the sweetness until it is exactly right.


One of the most widely used natural sweeteners on the market, stevia is derived from the leaves of the stevia rebaudiana plant, which is native to South America. If you’re using stevia as a sugar substitute, start out slowly because it’s roughly 300 hundred times sweeter than sugar. In most cases, 1 tsp of Stevia will suffice if a recipe calls for 1 cup of sugar. The manufacturer’s instructions should be followed, though, as each type of stevia supplement can differ.

Calories and Carbs in Stevia

In its purest form, stevia contains neither calories nor carbs. To help lessen the sweetness of stevia and replicate the flavor of sugar, the majority of stevia products blend stevia leaf extract with other substances like dextrose, maltodextrin, erythritol, or other fillers. Therefore, if you use a sugar substitute made from stevia and coupled with dextrose or maltodextrin, you will still consume some calories and carbs, and your sugar substitute will still affect your blood sugar levels.

Without sugar additions, Stevia won’t raise blood sugar, and according to one research, it may even help people with type 2 diabetes lower their blood sugar levels after eating. Studies have also suggested that stevia may be anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative in small dosages.

Stevia Digestibility

Most people tolerate stevia well in terms of digestion, unless it has been combined with a sugar alcohol like maltitol. In that situation, bloating and diarrhoea are common.

Stevia Taste

Finding a sweetener that tastes exactly like sugar is difficult, and some individuals complain that the aftertaste of stevia is bitter and metallic. It’s also a little too simple to accidentally oversweeten foods because it’s around 300 hundred times sweeter than sugar.


Some fruits, vegetables, and fermented foods naturally contain erythritol, a sugar alcohol. It was discovered in fermented blackstrap molasses in 1950, and in the 1990s it was commercialized in Japan as a natural sweetener.

Erythritol is made by fermenting glucose with yeast or fungi after glucose has been hydrolyzed from maize starch into glucose.

Erythritol is less sweet than sugar, unlike stevia or monk fruit. Since erythritol is roughly 70% as sweet as sugar, it’s simpler to replace sugar with it in a 1:1 ratio without your taste senses becoming too overwhelmed. It is frequently used in low-carb baking as a result of this. Due to its similar metabolic effects and lower sweetness, it is frequently mixed with stevia and monk fruit.

Calories and Carbs in Erythritol

While erythritol does not have zero calories, it has fewer than other sugar alcohols. For instance, erythritol has far fewer calories per gram—about 0.24—than xylitol, a sugar alcohol, which has 2.4 calories per gram. This contrasts with the 4 calories per gram of table sugar.

Erythritol is theoretically a carbohydrate because it is a sugar alcohol. However, because the human body lacks the enzyme to break down sugar alcohols, they cannot be absorbed by the body. Because erythritol has no net carbs, it has no effect on blood sugar or insulin levels. According to one study, 90% of the erythritol that is consumed is absorbed and subsequently eliminated in the urine, having little impact on insulin or blood sugar levels.

Erythritol Digestibility

The majority of sugar alcohols are notorious for causing diarrhea, gas, bloating, and stomach pain. Because sugar alcohols cannot be metabolized by the organism, they pass into the colon undamaged. When they reach the colon, bacteria then ferment them, causing gas to be produced as a byproduct.

The majority of sugar alcohols are different from erythritol. Since 90% of it is absorbed into the bloodstream, only around 10% of it even reaches the colon. Second, erythritol has demonstrated resistance to fermentation by the microbiota. As a result, erythritol frequently lacks the digestive side effects connected with the majority of sugar alcohols. Although some people do report experiencing digestive issues after consuming large amounts of erythritol, most people report no discomfort with regular use.

Erythritol Taste

Erythritol and sugar have very similar tastes, and most people can’t tell them apart. It even turns to caramel like sugar. However, the primary flavor difference is that erythritol has a cooling, mint-like impact in the mouth.

Runner-Up Sugar Substitutes & Natural Sweeteners

Since there are so many sugar alternatives available, it is difficult to go into great depth about each one. For this reason, we made an effort to limit them to the four sweeteners listed above that are of the best caliber.

You might nevertheless come across a few well-known sugar replacements, and not all of them are natural. We don’t think the following sweeteners are the best in the world. Each of these sugar replacements has at least one downside, and some of them aren’t even thought of as “natural.” But we believe it’s important to be aware of them.


Maltitol is a similar sugar alcohol to erythritol. Additionally, it is frequently combined with other sweeteners like stevia and monk fruit. Unfortunately, compared to other natural sweeteners, maltitol has a number of disadvantages.

Although maltilol has fewer calories than erythritol, it has a higher glycemic index and will raise blood sugar levels than erythritol. Additionally, the bacteria in the colon actively ferment it, which frequently results in stomach pain from gas, bloating, and diarrhea.


Xylitol, another sugar alcohol, is a respectable substitute for sugar because it doesn’t cause an insulin or blood sugar surge. However, it has the unfavorable side effect of generating gas, bloating, and diarrhea, just as maltitol. Compared to maltitol, xylitol generally causes fewer severe stomach problems, but let’s be honest—any diarrhea is too much.

You should stick to erythritol when it comes to sugar alcohols because it has the advantages of sugar alcohols but with less negative effects.


The main component of the artificial sweetener Splenda is sucralose. It is not a natural sweetener, to start with. Sucralose is also mixed with dextrose and maltodextrin to make Splenda, despite the fact that it has no calories and has no impact on blood sugar levels. This means that in its most prevalent form, it might raise blood sugar and add to the total number of calories.

Sucralose is also unstable when used in cooking since it starts to degrade and combine with other chemicals like glycerol, which can lead to the production of dangerous compounds.


A simple sugar called tagatose is digested differently from glucose. It has a far lower glycemic index and is roughly 90% as sweet as table sugar. Tagatose’s only downside is that it does slightly raise insulin and blood glucose levels. In comparison to other natural sweeteners, it’s also more expensive and relatively hard to come by.