- CPV-2c2,3, and all other known canine parvovirus (CPV) strains are effectively neutralised by it.
- contains CPV-2b, one of the parvoviruses’ most common field strains.
- Parvovirus vaccine with a high antigenic mass (titer) but low passage
- The amount of colostral antibodies absorbed by the puppy and the titer of the mother’s anti-canine parvovirus antibodies determine when the development of active immunity is no longer hampered.
- the only leptospirosis vaccine with a history of success in preventing death and urine shedding.
What distinguishes the L2 and L4 vaccines?
Some vaccines (L2 vaccines) contain two strains of the organisms, whereas other vaccines contain four (L4 vaccines). We recommend using L4 vaccines since they offer protection against a larger variety of Leptospira species, especially if you take your dog on any international journey (where different strains of Leptospira are found).
My dog needs the lepto 4 vaccine, right?
Leptospirosis (Lepto) is a disease that can affect both humans and animals and is brought on by the Leptospira bacteria. In fact, it is currently the zoonotic illness that affects humans the most frequently worldwide.
Wildlife such as rats, raccoons, opossums, skunks, squirrels, and deer can carry leptospirosis, which can be found in lakes, streams, puddles, or soil in your garden where they may urinate. But this does not imply that the only dogs who can be exposed are those who lick up puddles or swim in lakes! Any dog that frequently goes outside could be infected with this illness.
Leptospirosis vaccination for dogs is currently not necessary, although it is strongly advised for any dog that frequently ventures outside, even merely to use the restroom in the backyard. Although it may initially appear that small breed dogs and dogs living in cities are at a lower risk, these animals are really the ones who are diagnosed with leptospirosis the most frequently in veterinary hospitals! It’s crucial to realise that even if your dog has had the necessary vaccinations, there is no 100% assurance that they will not acquire leptospirosis.
Only a few of the several variants of the Leptospira bacteria that cause leptospirosis are now protected by the vaccine. The danger of your dog contracting leptospirosis does, however, decrease with vaccination.
The symptoms of this condition in animals can be challenging to spot and may look similar to those of other illnesses. In some cases, dogs may even show no symptoms. Some of the clinical symptoms that have been observed in dogs are listed below. These consist of:
- Continent pain
- refusal of food
- extreme lassitude and sadness
- significant muscular ache
- being unable to have pups
When should nobivac L4 be administered?
What is the Nobivac L4 interval? From the age of 6 weeks forward, give dogs two shots of 1 dose (1 ml) of vaccine spaced four weeks apart. From 6 to 9* weeks of age, the first immunisation can be given, and from 10 to 13 weeks of age, the second.
Describe the 4L vaccination.
For the subcutaneous vaccination of healthy dogs 6 weeks of age or older against canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus (CPV), Leptospira canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, ULTRA Duramune DAP+4L has been demonstrated to be effective.
First and second puppy vaccinations
Your puppy is ready to go on their first walk on pavement, go on an expedition to the park, and freely socialise with other dogs one week after receiving their second immunisation.
Once that is done, your dog will need yearly booster shots to ensure lifelong protection.
Flea and worm treatment
For your puppy to be fully protected in time for their first walk, the majority of veterinarians may offer a flea and worm treatment at the same time as their second immunisation.
Kennel cough vaccination
A bacterium known as Bordetella causes the highly contagious respiratory illness known as kennel cough. Dogs can get it anywhere in the UK, including London, and are not required to stay in kennels to do so. Every month, we encounter multiple cases!
The 2-valent kind (Lepto2 or L2) is sufficient in a large metropolis. Though, if your
Both vaccinations call for two doses. Between the L2 injection and the L4 vaccine, there must be a 2 week interval.
After L4, when may dogs go outside?
Your dog shouldn’t be taken for a stroll in public before receiving their first immunisation. Puppies should still be introduced to novel sights, sounds, smells, and sensations, but only while carried and kept off the ground in public places. As long as you’ve never had a dog with an infectious condition, access to your own private garden is usually secure. It is safe for the puppy to meet healthy, fully vaccinated dogs if you have friends who own them.
Puppies won’t necessarily gain a lot of immunity after their first vaccine, thus the previous instructions should still be followed.
Your puppy will be protected against distemper, hepatitis, and parvovirus one week after receiving their second vaccination as long as they are at least 10 weeks old at that time. Your dog can now be taken for walks in public places and can typically enrol in puppy classes starting one week after their second immunisation. They should stay away from leptospirosis-prone regions like livestock farms, stagnant water, and areas with rat infestations because they are not yet immune to the disease.
The second leptospirosis immunisation, which needs to be administered four weeks following the first, will be your puppy’s third and last shot. You should continue to stay away from regions with a high leptospirosis risk after this injection since it takes three weeks for immunity to start developing after the second L4 vaccination.
What makes lepto 2 and lepto 4 different?
Typically, vaccinations can be administered starting at 6 weeks of age, 2 to 4 weeks apart, with the final dose starting at 16 weeks of age. To promote early socialisation, several vaccines have been licenced so that the final dosage can be administered starting at 10 weeks of age. An illustration of a vaccination schedule for a puppy would be to provide the first shot at 8 weeks, followed by the second and final shots at 10 or 12 weeks.
So, if your puppy is 8 weeks old (the minimum recommended age for puppies to be removed from their siblings and mother), they may already have received their first immunisation, and you may just need to take them for their second and final vaccinations.
Lepto 2 or lepto 4?
Whether to immunise dogs against leptospirosis with the Lepto 2 or Lepto 4 vaccination is a contentious topic with many opposing viewpoints. Both have pros and cons, just like everything else. Having this knowledge will enable you to decide what is best for your pet, regardless of what other people may think.
Lepto 2 protects dogs against the canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae serogroups of Leptospirosis, making it different from Lepto 1. Canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae, grippotyphosa, and australis are the four serogroups that Lepto 4 offers a more thorough defence against.
The two most prevalent serogroups in the UK are icterohaemorrhagiae and leptospirosis canicola. Leptospirosis grippotyphosa is uncommon in the United States but widespread in nations like France and Germany. Leptospirosis australis, a different form, has also been documented in the UK.
The quantity of adverse responses to these vaccines that have been documented is the second factor to think about. This is higher with the Lepto 4 vaccine because it causes a higher activation of the immune system to provide protection against a greater variety of pathogenic pathogens.
Less than 7 out of every 10,000 dogs who receive the Lepto 4 immunisation experience an adverse response. In a similar vein, less than 2 out of every 10,000 dogs who receive the Lepto 2 vaccine experience a response. These can be modest, such a brief localised swelling at the injection site, or severe, like anaphylaxis.
When can I take my puppy out?
As soon as your dog is with you, you should take him outside. A puppy’s first 12 to 16 weeks of life are essential for ensuring appropriate socialisation. Puppies learn throughout this time what is safe and hazardous, as well as what should be considered normal in adulthood. Your puppy’s exposure to many sounds, smells, people, and other animals will lay the groundwork for you to raise a confident, content dog.
The immunisation regimen, however, is only completed at a minimum age of 10 weeks, as was previously discussed. One to three weeks following the final immunisation, puppies only begin to show protection to the diseases covered by vaccination.
So, how can you safeguard your puppy while fostering a solid social foundation before they receive all of their vaccinations?
- Carry your puppy on walks or take them out in a cart. Never place an unvaccinated puppy on the ground in a public area, including parks or even the veterinary office;
- Let your puppy be carried and petted by as many people as you can;
- Bring them to a protected area (preferably inside) where they can be among fully vaccinated animals, such as a family member who has a cat or dog;
- Get your puppy acclimated to being manipulated at home. Always ensure that you associate having your mouth opened, your paws on them, cleaning their ears, and having their claws clipped with pleasurable experiences.
What will happen if I don’t vaccinate my puppy?
Herd immunity is a benefit of vaccinations in addition to providing individual immunity. This translates to a lesser probability of an unvaccinated animal coming into touch with these infectious agents due to the high number of canines that have received their vaccinations.
The situation would alter if everyone stopped immunising their canines. Infectious hepatitis and distemper, which are currently uncommon in the UK, are expected to return to becoming prevalent. Leptospirosis and parvovirus are regrettably still highly prevalent in unvaccinated dogs in the UK. The chance of your puppy contracting these potentially fatal diseases is very great if they are not vaccinated.
As a result, immunising your puppy will benefit both their personal health and the health and wellness of the entire canine population. Following the preceding recommendations will ensure that their social abilities are unaffected.
The vaccine doesn’t really work all that well
In fact, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 30% of dogs don’t respond to the vaccine at all.
Dr. Richard Goldstein, director of the Animal Medical Center, said that the vaccination “appears to work but, confesses this is based on data provided by the business that provides the vaccine.” He also asserts that the vaccination offers protection for a whole year, yet this assertion is based once more on drug industry statistics.
The vaccine can actually cause lepto
Numerous incidents of dogs having lepto after receiving the vaccine have been reported to us. Additionally, in the Canine Health Concern vaccine survey, 100% of the dogs who developed leptospirosis did so shortly after receiving the disease-prevention vaccine.
The vaccine only protects against a few serovars
For lepto, there are roughly 300 distinct serovars. And just four of them—Leptospira canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona bacterin—are protected against by the vaccination.
Oh, and those lentivirus-positive canines in Los Angeles County? The leptovirus vaccine does not protect against Automnalis, the most prevalent serovar detected in those dogs.
The vaccine isn’t very safe!
The lepto vaccination, according to the majority of veterinary specialists, is the one most likely to result in serious side effects. Events that the European Medicines Agency had already recorded, like unexpected death and autoimmune illness. Leptospirosis vaccines, according to the WSAVA, “may be connected with adverse reactions and are “related with as many adverse reactions as occur for any other optional vaccine on the market,” the organisation even asserts.
However, MSD argues that their vaccination is safe, saying:
“We acknowledge that vaccinations occasionally have a negative impact on a dog’s health. Our pharmacovigilance monitoring does show that unfavourable responses, like brief malaise, lumps at the injection site, or even anaphylaxis, can happen infrequently. The hazards of the animal not receiving a vaccination and being exposed to disease must be evaluated against these uncommon consequences.
If that’s the case, shouldn’t someone start providing evidence of the risks associated with refusing vaccinations?
According to Chris Bradley, a veterinary advisor for MSD:
“The occasional instance that may have a connection to (L4) immunizations does exist, but because the incidence is so low, it is not thought to be important. We have very few records of other reactions and no instances of canine anaphylactic shock from our vaccine in our pharmacovigilance database.
But hold on, shouldn’t we be aware of the precise number of dogs who are injured by the lepto vaccine so that we may determine the appropriate amount of risk for our own pets?
In the UK, pet owners are learning that the risk is quite high. But if you want to know precisely how many dogs in the US have been damaged by the vaccine, you’ll never know.