Around nine or ten months old, female dogs often reach puberty or sexual maturity. Large and enormous breeds can take up to two years to enter estrus, although smaller breeds can do so as early as four months of age in some females. Many dogs’ first heats are “silent” or lack the estrus-related clinical indications. The typical strategy is to wait until the second or third heat cycle before breeding because many dogs’ first estrus cycle is unlikely to allow effective mating.
How often do female dogs come into estrus?
Estrus often happens twice a year, though this might vary from dog to dog. Compared to larger breeds, little breeds tend to cycle more frequently. The average time between heat cycles is seven months, ranging from four to twelve months. The Basenji and other sled dog breeds are an anomaly since they typically go into heat just once a year, usually in the spring.
What are the signs of estrus in dogs?
The first physical sign of an upcoming estrus cycle is vulvar enlargement. However, vaginal bleeding is the most blatantly noticeable symptom. This might not be noticeable for a few days after the female enters estrus. When a female dog is in estrus, some of them bleed profusely while others barely bleed at all. Consult your veterinarian if you have concerns about your dog.
Male dogs will find a female appealing when her estrus phase starts, but she won’t typically be receptive or agree to mate until seven to ten days into her cycle. The discharge’s color and appearance alter as the cycle goes on. It typically starts off looking extremely crimson and thick before gradually turning into a watery, blood-tinged discharge. This shift in the discharge’s appearance typically correlates to the receptive time for mating.
Additionally, you could notice that your female dog is urinating in small amounts more frequently. Pheromones and hormones found in the urine alert potential suitors that she will become responsive shortly.
How long does an estrus cycle last?
For most dogs, the cycle lasts an average of two to three weeks. The earliest indications of vulvar enlargement or vaginal discharge signal the start of the cycle. When all discharge stops and the vulva reaches its regular size, the process is complete.
How do I determine the best time to mate my dog?
This can be challenging. Around the eleventh day of estrus, the majority of dogs ovulate and become fertile. The female will be actively hunting for a male, and the discharge is typically less bloody (commonly characterized as salmon in color). The female can either stand with her hind end out in front for the male to mount her, or she can tuck it to the side. Ovulation, on the other hand, can take place at any time during the heat cycle.
Are there any tests to determine when to mate my dog?
Yes. Your veterinarian can conduct the following two straightforward tests:
Vaginal cytology or smears are the first step. Vaginal cells can be examined under a microscope to find changes in their appearance and number. This method has been around for a while and is dependable enough. It is not invasive, and the female is not bothered by it. The majority of vaginal smears are conducted over a few days to check for changes in the cells that indicate ovulation and the ideal period for mating.
2. A test for serum progesterone. The blood progesterone level is measured by this test. Due to its precision and high level of sensitivity, it has gained popularity. To determine ovulation, many tests performed over a number of days may be necessary for some dogs. Instead of serum progesterone, some vets recommend the daily blood test for LH (luteinizing hormone). The various testing choices and which is best for your dog will be covered by your vet.
The serum progesterone test provides a reliable indication of the best times for mating.
Although submitting samples to a lab yields more precise results, your veterinarian may be able to perform both tests in-house. The serum progesterone test is a reliable predictor of the best times for mating. It is helpful for females who have had trouble mating in the past or for females who will have to go a long way to the male dog.
What can I do to ensure mating is successful?
Unexpectedly, male canines during mating appear to be more susceptible to stress than females. The likelihood of a successful mating increases when the male dog is in his natural habitat. For breeding purposes, females are typically brought to the male dog’s house.
The ideal days for breeding should be determined by testing your female, as the moment of mating is quite important. The ideal period for breeding for the majority of females is between the tenth and fourteenth day of estrus. Females can ovulate as early as the third or fourth day or as late as the eighteenth day, though.
It is typical to schedule two matings (also known as stud services) for your dog, typically separated by 24 to 48 hours. When making first queries, verify these information with the male’s owner. Ask what will happen if the stud service does not result in your female dog becoming pregnant. The owner of the male dog frequently offers a complimentary service the next time.
I was told that my female had tied well with the dog. What does this mean?
Bulbis glandis, a portion of the dog’s penis, enlarges and swells during coitus. The penis cannot be retracted because the female’s vaginal muscles contract against the bulbis glandis. This “tie” is the element that successful mating is said to require. It’s crucial to remember that there’s no requirement for a knot for pregnancy. Once tied, the male dog frequently steps over the female or is maneuvered into a position where the dogs are back-to-back by the handlers. Typically, the tie will last between five and ten minutes.
What should I do if I find my dog tied to another during a mismating?
Animals bound together in this manner cannot be separated, hence there is little use in attempting to do so. Cold water buckets, water cannons, cap guns, and similar items are ineffective at hastening the separation procedure and instead upset or even hurt the dogs. In reality, forcing a separation can cause the female considerable harm and should be avoided. Consult your veterinarian as soon as possible if a mismating occurs so that your choices can be discussed.
How can I tell whether my dog is ready for a relationship?
Your dog will go through four phases of her heat cycle, each of which will be marked by distinct physical and behavioral changes. The canine heat cycle has four stages, which are as follows:
- Proestrus: The beginning of the heat cycle, when your dog’s body is getting ready to mate A swollen vulva, blood-tinged discharge, excessive vaginal licking, clinging behavior, and hostility toward male canines are symptoms of this stage. Additionally, your dog might tuck her tail close to her body.
- Estrus: Your female dog will be receptive to men during the estrus phase, which is the mating phase. Your dog may seem to be urinating more frequently than usual because she is leaving birthmarks on her body to show that she is ready to procreate. Even though she might be leaving urine stains in some places, her vaginal discharge will likely slow down and possibly turn straw-colored. Your dog will approach males with her tail held to the side when she is ready to mate, but she can act aggressively toward other females.
- Diestrus: This stage follows the “in heat stage and gives your dog’s body the chance to either revert to normal or go into pregnancy. Her vulva will enlarge once again, and the flow from her vagina will stop.
- Anestrus: Anestrus is a dormant phase during which no noticeable changes in hormone levels or sexual behavior occur.
How long is a dog fertile after bleeding?
Since many of my clients have enquired about the seasons’ (also known as the “heat”) cycles in an effort to prevent their female’s (also known as “bitch”) unintentional pregnancy, I decided that a little article might be beneficial.
When do female dogs come into season?
Depending on the person and breed, this can change. Females typically enter their breeding season at around 6 months of age, but it can happen at any age between 4 months and more than 2 years. Some breeds, like the whippet, often enter their breeding season at around 13 months. Asking your breeder what age the mother dog initially entered the breeding season can be a good indication of when to anticipate your female entering the breeding season. It’s crucial NOT to let a female mate for the first two seasons if you intend to breed because this will result in lower egg quality, you won’t know her temperament, and her joints won’t be ready for carrying a litter. Don’t enter into this decision lightly because it’s a huge responsibility and expensive if done properly. Normally, a female will come into season twice a year; however, large breeds will only do so once a year.
How long does a season (heat) last?
This is why, if your female dog goes into season while enrolled in one of our training programs, we ask that you wait four full weeks before bringing her back to training sessions. Due to the difficulty in correctly predicting a season, we will credit your missed sessions toward the following course so that you won’t be out of money.
When should I avoid letting my in-season female meet intact (uncastrated) male dogs to avoid a pregnancy?
I’ll have to give a brief explanation of the dog’s reproductive cycle in order to respond to this.
Phase of proestrus:
She usually bleeds during the proestrus stage, which is the first phase of a heat cycle and lasts about 9 to 10 days. Occasionally, if your girl is particularly skilled at keeping herself clean, you won’t see the blood. But she would be more conscious of grooming herself. Additionally, she will probably urinate more as she advertises her fertility to nearby males. Additionally, you’ll see that her vulva (female genitalia) will enlarge considerably and protrude outward. Even if a male is interested in mating with her at this time, it is typically the case (but not always) that the female will not. The bleeding will either stop or become more watery after 9–10 days. Your female will most likely be at her most fertile at this time. Some canines’ proestrus phases might last up to 20 days. Therefore, the cessation of bleeding may be a more accurate predictor of peak fertility.
(FERTILE STAGE) Estrus stage
Following the proestrus stage, the estrus stage lasts roughly between 9 and 19 days. At this moment, your female will probably be highly open to mating with any male and may even go looking for them (fluzy!). She will be being pursued by every guy in the area using smell. If you remove your female, there won’t be anything you can do to prevent her from being mated, and you’ll probably end up with an unwanted litter. Many individuals mistakenly believe that once the bleeding ends, the season is finished but, in reality, woman is typically at her most fertile and likely to become pregnant when the flow ceases and turns more watery. It’s vital to keep in mind, though, that your female may become pregnant up to four weeks before the conclusion of her season. The vulva should revert to normal after the estrus period because she is no longer fertile and can be mixed with healthy male dogs.
The phase that comes after oestrus is this. The female will stop being amenable to mating. There are around two months left in this period. Three to four weeks after the start of diestrus, progestrone levels will peak, and by the time this stage is over, they will have returned to normal. Whether or whether a woman is pregnant has no effect on these hormone levels. It’s crucial to wait to sterilize a female until after this time because these hormonal changes are taking place. The ovaries control hormone levels; if they are removed, they will no longer be able to do so. If your female experiences behavioral issues that are hormonally influenced and persist after the season, this may put her in a condition of hormonal imbalance.
During the diestrus stage, certain females will experience what is referred to as a “phantom pregnancy.” She will produce milk, and you might notice behavioral changes like resource preservation and nesting. Some females through this stage without incident, however behavior issues might occasionally happen. Additionally, it has been proposed that phantom pregnancy may put a woman at a higher risk of getting pyometra, a uterine infection that can be fatal. It is worthwhile to consult your veterinarian if your female’s behavior changes during this phase. keep an eye out for temperature spikes (making sure that you use an ear thermometer, or lubricate the thermometer if inserting this anally to avoid inflicting pain and discomfort on her). Changes in behavior, such as losing interest in meals or becoming lethargic, can frequently be the first indicators of pyometra. Typically, the vulva will release a pungent substance. At this point, a trip to the emergency vet is required. Pyometra has a high rate of killing.
Etiquettes for walking an in-season female.
In-season female dogs should not be walked in public. Every single intact male in your neighborhood will be drawn to her aroma. Even castrated male dogs can “mate with her,” and even castrated dogs will seek out the scent of an in-season female. Your female and the male will be tied together during the lengthy mating (tying) process, which can last up to an hour. It would be better to prevent this humiliation. You won’t want to mate your bitch with just ANY dog. Just like people, dogs can carry sexually transmitted illnesses, even a sexually transmitted form of cancer! Additionally, you should carefully select a partner based on their genetic health and excellent (perfect) disposition.
Please exercise caution. More unexpected litters are the last thing anyone needs because there are already so many dogs in rescue facilities. Breed from your dog only if you’re willing to undergo DNA testing, are prepared to breed from dogs without aggression issues, and are aware about how to select the best sire for your female. It’s best to let the mother dog handle raising a litter because it’s not an easy task. For several months, you will need to stay at her home to supervise and offer the necessary support. Before you even have the litter, breeding a perfect litter will cost you more than $1,000.00. C-sections are often performed and can cost thousands of pounds. A well-planned litter is not a profitable endeavor.
If a male dog is not castrated, you can see his testicles if you look at him from behind. The dog has been castrated or chemically castrated if there are no testicles, possibly only a flap of skin hanging down.
Even now, your dog can knot. In other words, if he has been castrated, he will penetrate the female but not be able to impregnate her. However, you won’t be able to separate them during the tie, which might persist for a long period (usually about half an hour). When they are tied, you should never attempt to untie them since you risk hurting them.
How can I stop my intact male dog from marrying my bitch while they live together and she is in season?
Do not keep them together at this time, please. Being unable to approach his fertile companion will probably cause the man to feel quite frustrated, which can and frequently does result in hostile outbursts. It would be nearly impossible to stop male dogs from mating because they can be highly resourceful in their approaches to females that are in breeding season. To be fair to him, let him stay with a friend or relative until the conclusion of her season.
If your dog has mated more than once, then yes, you can get puppies from many fathers. Mixed paternity litter is what this is known as.
Full Member TCBTS, Full Member APBC (Association of Pet Behaviour Counselors) (The Canine Training & Behaviour Society)