During a female dog’s heat cycle, a bloody discharge from the vulva is a typical occurrence. Dogs normally bleed and go into heat one to three times each year.
The bleeding, however, can be an indication of a potentially serious health issue if your dog has been spayed or you are aware that it is not yet time for your intact dog to go into heat.
If your dog’s vulva is bleeding, there are a number of potential causes, including trauma, tumors, infections, anatomical anomalies, blood clotting issues, and urinary tract diseases. A vet should examine your dog unless it is known that she is in heat and there are no other problems.
Why is the private area of my dog bleeding?
Injuries to the penis or prepuce, ailments of the urinary tract (such as infections, tumors, bladder stones, etc.), blood-clotting issues, and illnesses of the prostate gland can all cause blood to be visible coming from a dog’s penis.
When a male dog is not neutered, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland linked to testosterone exposure, is the most typical cause of bloody flow from the penis.
Often, a rectal examination by a veterinarian will reveal whether a dog has BPH by feeling the prostate gland. Most canine BPH cases can be cured by neutering.
A vet ought to examine any dog who has blood oozing from his penis.
Why is the private area of my female dog bloated and bleeding?
If you find that your female dog’s private area is bloated, it may be an indication of labor, an allergic response, an illness, or your fluffy companion commencing her heat cycle. The six causes of enlarged private parts in female dogs are listed below.
Your female dog will go into heat twice a year for roughly 3–4 weeks if she is still intact. The tissues surrounding the vulva will enlarge and face outwards during this time due to the dog’s body releasing more estrogen hormones.
Other common indications that a dog is in heat besides swelling in the intimate area include:
- Vaginal discharge with a bloody tint
- genital licking that is excessive
- excessive tail waggishness
- a rise in mountain behavior
- open to having male dogs lick and sniff her vulva
- frequent urinating, frequently in male dogs’ presence
- conduct that is agitated, anxious, or nesting
If the female dog’s vulva is enlarged and you see the majority of the symptoms listed above, your dog is most likely in heat. If the mating is successful, she will get pregnant. After the heat is passed, however, the vulva should grow back to its original size (within 2-21 days).
Infections of the urinary system are common in female dogs. For instance, older dogs and puppies may suffer from vaginitis, an inflammation of the vaginal region. Bacterial infections, structural defects, and even malignancy are all potential causes of the illness.
Vaginal inflammation comes in two different forms: juvenile vaginitis, which affects puppies, and adult-onset vaginitis (which affects older dogs and is more common in spayed female dogs).
In dogs, symptoms of vaginal inflammation include:
- Yellowish or white vaginal discharge
- vulva region licking that is excessive
- often urinating
- discomfort indicators when urinating
- a crimson vulva that has swollen
- Dog moving down the floor with her bottom.
Take your female dog to the vet for an inspection and treatment if you suspect vaginal irritation. If the problem is not handled in a timely manner, corrective operations including surgical cleansing and draining may be required.
When your dog is in heat, vaginal hyperplasia, a disorder, can also occur. As a result of tissue swelling in the vaginal region, you will see a dark pink or crimson tissue protruding from her vulva. Once the heat cycle is over, this situation ought to go away. If you don’t want your dog to become pregnant, you can choose to spay her, which will also stop vaginal hyperplasia.
Some female dogs who have had spaying still endure vaginal bleeding and vaginal edema. This happens when, following her spay operation, some ovarian tissue is still present inside the abdomen. If your dog’s private region is bloated and there is a vaginal discharge that has a bloody tint, be sure to take her to the doctor.
Your female dog’s private area may be enlarged as a result of pregnancy preparation. One of the changes you’ll notice in your pregnant dog as she approaches labor is enlargement of the vulva, which is one of the alterations. Other indications that a dog is giving birth include:
- Nervousness and restlessness
- panting while pacing
- refusal to eat and possible vomiting
- Nesting actions, such as dragging clothing and fabric to create a cozy bed
- The woman strains as her stomach tightens.
A female dog’s nipples will have grown larger in preparation for breastfeeding by the time she goes into birth.
Forced separation during mating
A copulatory knot, or getting stuck during mating, occurs in dogs. The male dog’s bulbous head grows as soon as his penis is inserted, “holding him to the female.” Only once the male dog ejaculates and his enlarged head shrinks down to normal size will the knot be broken, allowing him to leave.
The female dog may suffer injuries such as tearing of the vaginal area, internal damage, blood loss, and severe agony if canines trapped in the mating process are forcibly separated. The best course of action is to see a veterinarian because these wounds cause the vulvar area to enlarge.
Your female dog’s private area swelling could possibly be the result of an allergic response. It’s possible that your dog has an allergy to shampoo or that she got into contact with a plant that she is allergic to. Remember that the vulva is a sensitive area that can react to plant toxins or insect stings.
When not in heat, can dogs still bleed?
The fact that a female dog is in heat is the primary explanation for why she is bleeding from her vulva. The reproductive cycle of female dogs contains four distinct stages. Here are some of them:
- Despite not being fertile, the dog is preparing for this period by releasing hormones during proestrus. Both bleeding and vaginal edema may result from them. When there is blood on the ground where they are sitting, it is possible to spot dogs.
- Estrus: This is the dog’s reproductive period. The dog shouldn’t bleed, but it may linger for three to seventeen days. They’ll want to locate a mate and adjust their behavior in a number of ways.
- Depending on whether fertilization has taken place, diestrus varies. They can even begin lactating as their personality stabilizes. If they are expecting, fetal gestation takes place.
- Anestrus is a time when a woman is not engaged in sexual activity, either because she has just given birth to puppies or because her heat cycle is over. During this phase, there shouldn’t be any vaginal bleeding.
Heat first appears in fawns between the ages of 6 and 8 months, though it may appear sooner in smaller breeds or later in larger breeds. The heat cycle happens roughly every six months and is repeated a few times a year. The menstrual cycle may exhibit anomalies in younger females up to two years of age.
The bitch typically goes through physical and behavioral changes that naturally resolve themselves without any outside help. Because she is in the proestrus cycle of her heat period, a healthy dog is likely to bleed from her private areas. She shouldn’t bleed, though, during any other portions of her heat cycle. You must identify the cause if this happens. It can be a veterinary emergency if she is in pain, has purulent discharge, or exhibits other signs.
If a dog is sterilized and bleeding through the vulva, it may also be related to her estrus cycle. Even after being spayed, a dog may still have an ovarian remnant if she is bleeding. Even a tiny amount of it can produce enough hormones to start the heat cycle. Given that this is relatively uncommon, the following explanations make it more plausible that the dog is bleeding from her vagina.
How can I tell whether my dog has a UTI?
UTIs (urinary tract infections) are fairly typical in canines. When they go outside, dogs with UTIs typically make frequent attempts to pee. Additionally, if having to urinate hurts, they may struggle or scream out or complain. Even blood has been known to occasionally appear in urine. Frequently licking one’s genitalia or dripping urine are other symptoms of a UTI. Strongly scented urine might also be an indication of an infection in your dog.
“A pause in housetraining is a warning sign that the bladder is not functioning properly.”
A lapse in housetraining is a warning sign that the bladder may be malfunctioning. A UTI may be to fault if this were to happen to your formerly well-behaved dog.
A UTI often happens when bacteria enters the bladder through the urethra. Although the bladder should generate sterile urine, if bacteria get inside, they can thrive and replicate, leading to an infection. Some dogs will also experience bladder stones in addition to their UTI, which creates the possibility of other health problems.
What does a urinalysis look at?
Your vet will first run a urinalysis if your cat exhibits urinary symptoms while visiting the office. When a UTI is suspected, the urinalysis can provide a wealth of crucial information regarding the urine. The following are things your veterinarian will examine:
- specific gravity of urine (how well the dog is concentrating their urine)
- pH (certain pH levels can indicate infection or other problems)
- ketones (sometimes seen in cases of diabetes or body-wasting)
- glucose (sugar in the urine, usually a sign of diabetes)
- bilirubin (a breakdown product of blood)
Following the measurement of these levels, the urine sample is put into a centrifuge and spun downward to allow cells and other debris to collect at the sample tube’s bottom. The debris can then be examined under a microscope to reveal the presence of crystals, germs, white blood cells, and even red and white blood cells.
The next steps in determining the dog’s urinary tract ailment may be influenced by what is discovered beneath the microscope’s magnification. For instance, if the urine contains crystals, your veterinarian could advise radiography (X-rays) or an abdominal ultrasound to check for bladder stones.
My veterinarian sent a sample of urine to a laboratory for a culture and sensitivity test. What is this?
Not every urinary tract infection is the same! Escherichia coli, a bacteria found in feces, is the organism that causes UTIs in dogs most frequently, but there are a number of other organisms that could also be at fault. It can only be determined which particular bacteria is at fault by growing it in a lab. The lab can test which drug will work best to treat the infection at the same time.
In order to try to provide the dog instant comfort, a vet will frequently prescribe an antibiotic that is among the most widely used for treating UTIs. A change in diet may also be advised, along with the prescription of painkillers (because UTIs can be painful).
An appropriate antibiotic will be recommended after the results of the culture and sensitivity tests are known. It’s crucial to retest the urinalysis after the course of antibiotics has been administered to ensure that the infection has been treated. If not, it is crucial to look into any other problems that could be causing the recurring UTI.
Are some dogs predisposed to UTIs?
UTIs are more common in older female dogs and canines with diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes) than in the general population. Dogs with bladder stones are also more likely to experience UTIs repeatedly. This emphasizes how crucial it is to receive a thorough diagnosis whenever there are signs of disease in the urinary tract. To restore bladder health, bladder stones must be removed or broken apart.
What can I do to prevent a UTI from occurring in the future?
If there is anything you can do to stop the UTI from coming back in your dog, your vet will let you know. A change in diet is frequently suggested. Additionally, they might suggest some drugs or nutritional supplements that might help alter the pH of urine, making it more difficult for an infection to spread. To put techniques in place that have been proven to be helpful, it is advisable to discuss UTI prevention with your veterinarian.
Canine STDS exist?
The bacterium Brucella canis is the source of the infectious bacterial infection known as canine brucellosis (B. canis). Between dogs, this bacterial infection is extremely contagious. Infected dogs typically acquire a sexually transmitted illness or an infection of the reproductive system.
Brucella can infect a variety of animals, including sheep, goats, cattle, deer, elk, pigs, and others.
What are the signs of brucellosis?
In dogs, brucellosis typically results in reproductive issues like infertility and abortions, with few other clinically significant symptoms. Adult canines who are still sexually intact are most frequently affected.
The most common symptoms of canine brucellosis are reproductive issues like infertility and abortions, with few additional clinical symptoms.
When a male dog contracts brucellosis, the epididymitis infection affects a portion of the testicles. An enlarged scrotum or testicle, as well as a skin rash on the scrotum, are common in dogs with recently acquired infections. The dog could not conceive. In persistent or chronic conditions, the testicles will shrink or atrophy.
Female dogs with brucellosis develop an infection of the uterus, rendering them infertile, making it difficult for them to become pregnant, or even leading to an early abortion. She frequently gets an ongoing vaginal discharge. A pregnant dog with brucellosis will typically miscarry between 45 and 55 days into the pregnancy, give birth to weak or stillborn puppies who may pass away within a few days of birth, or both.
An enlarged lymph node is a typical symptom of brucellosis in its early stages. Occasionally, B. canis will infect the brain, eyes, kidneys, or intervertebral discs. The symptoms will be linked to the physiological system that is afflicted if the bacteria affects these other tissues.
How is canine brucellosis spread?
The sexual fluids (semen or vaginal discharges) of an infected dog shed large amounts of B. canis germs. The dog’s saliva or urine may also contain smaller quantities of microorganisms. A female dog with brucellosis who miscarries her pup will continue to expel brucellosis-infected secretions for 4-6 weeks after the miscarriage.
Dogs are exposed to the illness through contact with bodily fluids that are contaminated. Dogs can contract an infection through sexual transmission, inhalation (sniffing contaminated urine or other discharges), or through other mucous membranes such as the eyes. Although the most common route of infection is oral (i.e., from licking contaminated urine or discharges from the reproductive tract, or from licking or chewing placental material, or aborted fetuses), dogs can also pick up an infection through these other mucous membranes.
How is canine brucellosis diagnosed?
A blood test is typically used to diagnose the infection. Rapid slide agglutination test, or RAST, is the most popular blood test, and it can identify infections three to four weeks after they have begun. Negative results are trustworthy unless the dog has recently been exposed to the disease; this test is used to screen breeding dogs. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), an advanced test that may identify infected animals between 12 weeks and a year after infection, should be used to confirm any dog that tests positive with the RAST test because false-positive findings are very prevalent.
What is the treatment for canine brucellosis?
Any dog that has contracted B. canis should be thought of as having the infection for life, even though medications (most frequently minocycline or doxycycline, but occasionally enrofloxacin) can be administered to help control the condition. Antibiotics may be able to manage the acute illness, but the dog may continue to intermittently shed bacteria for the remainder of its life.
“Any dog that has contracted B. canis should be regarded as permanently infected.”
The risk to other dogs is decreased by surgical sterilization of the sick dog since less of the germs are shed into the environment.
How can brucellosis be controlled?
Canine brucellosis is a rare condition in Canada. In other regions of the United States, such the southern United States, and elsewhere in the world, it is more common. All dogs used for breeding should be tested frequently (e.g., every 3-6 months, depending on exposure to other dogs), and new dogs should never be introduced into a kennel environment until they have been quarantined for 8–12 weeks and then tested for the disease. This is because the disease poses a serious threat to the ability of dogs to breed. Near the end of the quarantine period, two blood tests spaced four weeks apart are generally advised.
Brucellosis is a reportable disease in the United States, which means that it has a significant impact on public health and that veterinarians and doctors are compelled to notify federal authorities of any positive cases. In Canada, canine brucellosis is not a reportable disease.
Am I at risk for developing brucellosis from an infected dog?
A zoonotic illness, or one that may spread from animals to people, is brucellosis. It is uncommon for a person to contract brucellosis from a dog, despite the fact that people can get sick by contacting infected animals.
Pet owners are not thought to be at risk for infection because they are less likely to come into contact with blood, semen, or uterine discharges from an infected dog. Breeders and veterinarians who are exposed to the blood or other secretions of infected animals are at an increased risk of developing an infection.
However, brucellosis-positive dogs should not be handled by humans with weakened immune systems.
People should exercise caution and proper hygiene when around breeding dogs, young puppies, or aborted fetuses. Wear disposable gloves whenever feasible before handling young puppies or cleaning a dog’s birthplace. After removing the disposable gloves, thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water before rinsing them.